Everyone has one pupil in their eye, but what if you have multiple pupils in only one eye? Yes, it is polycoria, a rare eye disease in which the patient suffered from multiple pupils in an eye.
Is Polycoria real?
Is it possible to have multiple pupils in one eye? Have you ever seen such a case in your real life? Does it exist? It can appear in one or both eyes. Generally found in children but sometimes diagnosed later in life. This disease is sporadic.
Polycoria is of two types, true polycoria and false polycoria. In a true polycoria case, each pupil functions independently without the interference of the other and also reacts to light. Therefore, when any person has more than one pupil in his eye, he is thought to have the problem of polycoria.
In the case of false or pseudopolycoria, two or more pupils appear in the eye, but only one pupil reacts to light. It involves splitting the iris, which is not due to the muscles at the root of the iris. This is add-up by the following conditions:
- Juvenile glaucoma
- Seckel syndrome
- Posterior polymorphous dystrophy
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Can you see with polycoria?
An opening in the center of the iris is called the pupil, which changes its size to allow more or less light into the eye. The muscles surrounding the pupil make it contract or shrink in bright light and larger and broader in dim light.
For vision, there is an essential role of the pupil. It allows only the right amount of light to the retina, which helps you see clearly day and night.
Difference between true polycoria and false polycoria
As discussed earlier that there are two types of polycoria, true polycoria and false polycoria. Sometimes it has not to be noticed by anyone until it creates the problem.
In true polycoria, there are two or more pupils within the iris, each of which will react to light independently, whether it’s contracting or dilating automatically.
In false polycoria, also called pseudopolycoria, this eye seems to have multiple pupils, but only one pupil reacts to the light. The other looks like the rest, but all do not function as pupils.
True polycoria is not so common; only a few cases have ever come to light. This also depends on the vision condition of the patient and its ability to see by the affected eye. It is always suggested that you contact your eye doctor immediately if you observe any issues with your vision.
Polycoria can affect your one or can be both eyes. Generally, it is present in early childhood but sometimes may be diagnosed later in life.
Polycoria Symptoms and signs
The symptoms of polycoria, having more than one set of iris muscles. The iris is situated as the coloured ring of muscle around the pupil. It controls the amount of light entered into the eye. In addition, it adjusts the size of the iris according to the need for vision.
In polycoria, the pupils seem smaller than usual and divided by each segment of the iris. If less light enters, that can lower your vision. Sometimes you may have difficulty focusing, which means your pupils are not working effectively.
Having the appearance of two pupils is the primary sign of polycoria, including this other symptom, are following:
- Issues with glare
- Dim, poor, or even double vision
- Blurred vision
- Change in shape of pupils; it can be oblong of either one or all additional pupils.
- A bridge of iris tissue has been made between multiple pupils.
Causes of Polycoria
There are no specific causes of polycoria, or we can say not yet discovered. However, some causes have been given below:
- Polar cataracts
- Abnormal development of eye
- Poor vision
- Abnormal development of the pupil margins
- Detached retina
Treatment for Polycoria
The treatment of polycoria is different for every patient. However, even some people with polycoria do not require any treatment as their vision is not affected if anyone has a problem with their vision. Hence, the only possible treatment for such a condition is surgery.
However, true polycoria is not so common; it is so rare and difficult to find the best treatments for this.
In mild cases of polycoria, no treatment is required, especially if there is no vision problem. But if anyone experienced any difficulties with their vision, only surgery can be the only option.
It has been found out in the case studies that surgery was the only successful treatment option. This surgery is called phalloplasty. In this surgery, the surgeon cuts the tissue of the iris to remove the bridge which has formed between the two pupils.
Still, more trials are required to find out whether phalloplasty will be successful or not for everyone in case of true polycoria. On the other hand, the success rate for this treatment has not been decided.
Associated conditions of Polycoria
Polycoria includes several complications like poor or blurred vision and difficulties in vision from the glare of lights. These complications arise because of the less effective pupil and iris.
Pseudopolycoria(false polycoria) or holes in the iris which seem as additional pupils can be determined as part of Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome. It is a bunch of eye disorders that can affect the development of the eye.
When will you visit your eye doctor for any vision issues?
It is highly recommended that you visit your eye doctor if you have any issues with your vision. Unfortunately, in some cases where people are generally unaware of this problem, they have just vision issues, but after a doctor’s visit, they have been diagnosed with polycoria.
You must refer to an annual eye examination for well-functioning eye health and vision. If you have been diagnosed with any such issues, they should be treated timely. So, if you are due for this check-up, contact your eye doctor for a visit today.
What will I do if one pupil of my eye is bigger than the other?
Having different-sized pupils is a common concern. It is reported that about 15% to 35% of people have this issue of different sized pupils. However, that doesn’t mean they have Polycoria.
Usually, this is not considered a dangerous condition and doesn’t need any treatment; you should clarify that this is not any more significant issue in the future.
An abrupt change in the size of your both pupils can be the result of head trauma, any medications, and we can say other medical conditions. You can consult your eye doctor without any delay as it can signify something hazardous.
Q1. Should I consult an eye doctor if I have pain in my eyes? Is this case of Polycoria?
Ans. Yes, you should consult your eye doctor; make clear yourself about the reason behind the pain in your eyes. As a concern to polycoria, it doesn’t have any pain issues, Just the problem arising with vision.
Q2. Is this visible two pupils in one eye, or just the problem with vision only?
Ans. Yes, these pupils can be seen easily by anyone. The patient also faced the problem of vision, and anyone could notice two pupils in his affected eye. You can search for the polycoria image on the internet.
Q3. When should I visit an eye doctor?
Ans. You should at least make an annual check-up for the well-functioning of your eyes. Along with this, you should immediately visit your eye doctor if you feel any vision problems or any other issues with your eye. Sometimes at exact timing visit can save you from any significant issue.
Polycoria is a vision condition of the eye, getting more than one pupil in a single eye. It may be the result of any disease affecting the iris. Although it is one of the rarest diseases of the eye, if anyone suffers from the same, he should immediately visit an eye doctor. This is of two types, and each type has a different effect on the vision.
Sometimes if this problem is mild, then there is no requirement of any treatment, but if it’s later in its stage, only surgery is the prescribed treatment. Unfortunately, there are no well-defined preventions measures for this disease; however, some genetic disorders will follow this disease in their generations. It affects the pupils and can appear in both or only one eye.
Polycoria generally starts during childhood but is sometimes diagnosed later in life. It reflects the only vision of the patient. So, if a patient consults an eye doctor on time, only the doctor will provide the proper guidance to his patient.
Sometimes this problem needs regular visits or check-ups only to record the problem. If still, it affects too much with vision, then only surgery is the only solution to this problem.
To keep your eye health, you make sure to take proper sleep and diet for your annual visit to an eye doctor.