Does urine hold DNA? This is an interesting question as it shows the hereditary and genetic reflection in the next generation. So before directly moving ahead on the answer to this question, let’s understand the term ‘DNA’.
What is DNA? Why is it so crucial for any living creature? What kinds of sources through which we get a particular DNA structure? So after going through these questions, we will ultimately reach our result.
What is DNA?
DNA stands for Deoxyribonucleic acid; it is a molecule that consists of two polynucleotide chains coiled around each other forms a double helix of genetic blueprint that makes up living organisms. It’s a chemical combination of the organism. It contains information regarding looks, health, aging, and behavior.
It can be a computer program to extract the information required to build an organism. DNA can be found in every cell of the living creature.
DNA and Different Sources
As we mentioned earlier, DNA comprises nucleotides, including 2-deoxyribose, phosphate groups, and nitrogen bases, which provide genetic information.
Each strand of DNA is measured through the blood, including white blood cells and epithelial cells. These both are found in the surface layers of skin. Including blood, DNA can also be found in hairs, saliva, and decomposing bones.
So, if you would ever listen about DNA testing, then it can be saliva, hairs, and nails, but you never heard of DNA testing with urine. There is doubt whether the urine and saliva will give the same result. So, let’s clear why urine is not preferred as the DNA sample.
The cells of urination and defecations are dying within the body only, which results in the breakdown of DNA-contained cells. This process is called lysis.
We can’t deny that urine does not contain DNA. However, it’s better to say that it is an incomplete sequence of the DNA found in each cell within the body.
If we talk about DNA, it means it relates to epithelial cells. So we can find better DNA detection in female urine as women have higher epithelial cell counts from the vaginal walls.
DNA contains thousands of information required by our bodies for proper functioning. We know this DNA stays inside cells, so it’s clear that there is no more enough DNA leftover for the test.
There is no more similarity between the DNA contained in the cell and remains after the cell dies. In the case of die cells, the DNA inside the cell completely broke down, which becomes part of the serum required for the test.
Now let’s be clear about the serum; it is used to measure and test a test strip. However, no more DNA is left to experiment, read and conclude the results.
DNA from urine and Disease detections
Urine can be used for DNA detection, but results may not be precise as blood tests. Urine samples can be used to detect some particular health conditions and diseases. These diseases are followings:
- Birth issues in fetuses
- Liver diseases
- Kidney diseases
Does urine hold DNA?
As we stated earlier, DNA found from female urination could be more beneficial than male urination. Now the question arises if urine holds the DNA, then how long and at room temperature? So, the latest study proved that human DNA could be found from freeze-dried urine after the prolonged storage of almost 16 years at room temperature.
One more fact related to DNA derived from urine samples is that it can be stored at room temperature after seven days, whether using any preserving agent or without it.
Why is it essential to refrigerate any urine sample?
As collected urine samples do continuous use of glucose in the urine. Also, bacteria present in the urine produce ammonia, which helps the urine become more alkaline, increasing pH value.
So, urine contains some DNA but not in that quantity as found in blood and saliva. One more reason for not considering urine for DNA stuff is that it degrades faster in urine, making it difficult to retrieve and produce reliable test results.
So, to maintain the temperature of the urine sample, it is necessary to refrigerate it.
Does old urine hold DNA?
As mentioned earlier, urine is not an ideal source of DNA as it has a low concentration of nucleated cells. So, you can’t deny that old urine holds DNA, but it’s not in the required quantity. So old urine does carry DNA but is still not preferred as a good source of DNA.
Can you identify anyone from urine?
Although urine has a low concentration of nucleated cells, still possible to recover enough DNA from the urine sample to find out a DNA identity test that is helpful to identify anyone, you can also find out the sex of an individual.
It can also be possible that results may not be as precise as blood and saliva samples. But still, we can use urine in case of a lack of samples of other stuff.
There are certain specifications for having an accurate result of the identity of any person via urine sample DNA. These are the followings:
- Urine sample should be of first or second urination as it may contain the highest yield. Along with this, the sample should be preserved at a temperature of -112 degrees Fahrenheit.
- The sample should use Sodium additives for further preservation.
- First-morning urine has the appropriate DNA in males and females, and afternoon urine produces higher DNA retrievals for women.
Blood, saliva, mucus, and hair strands are also more reliable. So, it’s not impossible to retrieve DNA from urine. Just the conditions should follow the above-given conditions.
However, in some studies, it has been clear that a DNA sample will be helpful if other sample stuff is not available for that moment.
Like urine, there is another source through which we can’t get reliable DNA reports. The content of human DNA in stool is very little. However, the total DNA that can be retrieved is high due to the contribution of bacteria. Although the poop itself is a complete ecosystem of many living microbes, they contain the DNA structure.
The poop is a combination of all kinds of things along with DNA. But while, retrieving DNA is as little as 0.1 to 0.01% of the total DNA. So, the answer to the question that can you get DNA from poop? It is a pretty low possibility, or you can say that results are unreliable.
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If we talk about other sources like saliva, sweat, semen, and even tears, they have sufficient DNA. Now we have advanced DNA tests available for various sources. So, we can get DNA from sweat, and the result is as reliable as we found from saliva and hair strands.
Simple urine tests for DNA can be helpful for the early detection of various diseases like HIV, cancer, malaria, tuberculosis, and so many others. In addition, these tests may also be beneficial in genetically fetuses’ congenital disabilities.
Q1. Can we get DNA from poop and stool?
Ans. Yes, we can get DNA from poop, but this result is not so reliable as other sources like saliva hair strands.
Q2. Can we detect any significant diseases from the urine DNA test?
Ans. Yes, urinary test DNA, it is easy to detect major chronic diseases like HIV, malaria, tuberculosis, and cancer. In addition, it will help in detecting fetuses’ congenital disabilities.
Q3. Name some sources from which we found the exact and reliable result of DNA.
Ans. Saliva, sweat, semen, blood, hair strands, and tears are sound sources from which we can find the exact and reliable result of DNA.
DNA stands for Deoxyribonucleic acid, which provides information on genetic pattern, growth, and aging. If you want to know whether urine holds DNA or not, then the answer to this question is yes but not reliable as blood and saliva.
Although urine of early morning contains the highest possibility of little bit accuracy in the case of males and women, afternoon urine may produce the higher possibility of accuracy in results.
Urine samples can be used to find out certain diseases and health issues. Through which birth defects of the fetus, cancer, kidney disease, liver disease, HIV, malaria, tuberculosis, ulcers.
While for DNA extraction, the urine sample is not the best source but can be used if nothing is available to retrieve DNA. If you have any potential health issues, your doctor will recommend blood and urine tests.
DNA can also find in human stool, but again it reflects the accuracy issues. You can find reliable and accurate results of DNA if your sources are blood, saliva, sweat, hair strands, bones, and nails. It is a structure through which we get the genetic formation of human behavior, health, and aging.
In the future, more urine-based DNA tests may come with reliable results.